Mental Retardation (Intellectual Disability)

Intellectual Disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is actually a disorder with onset during the developmental time. Intellectual deficits are included in addition to trouble functioning in areas like safety, health, leisure, work, academics, self-direction, social/interpersonal skills, home living, self-care, and communication .

Intellectual disabilityhas numerous etiologies and could be viewed as a final frequent pathway of different pathological steps which impact the main nervous system.

Just before the publication of DSM 5 in 2013, analysis criteria for mental retardation expected that an individual score ~2 standard deviations below their expected IQ compared to same-age-peers on standardized IQ tests (Full Scale Intellectual Quotient≤ 70).

In the DSM 5, IQ scores have been deemphasized.There is actually no more a cut off score or maybe threshold per se for setting up a diagnosis. Instead, scaled IQ scores are actually evaluated in context of individual 's total clinical picture.

The explanation for this particular modification was that while scaled IQ scores represent approximations of conceptual functioning, they could be inadequate to assess reasoning in real life circumstances and mastery of useful tasks within conceptual, social, and pragmatic domains. Because of this, clinical judgment is actually necessary to understand the outcomes of an IQ test.